10 Ways Stephen King’s Carrie Changed Horror

Gwendolyn Kiste

This month marks the fortieth anniversary of Stephen King’s debut novel, Carrie. While this article technically missed the official anniversary back on the 5th, I’ve found myself pondering a certain ineradicable loner ever since learning of the ceremonious four-decade occasion. What is it about the 1974 book that has inspired countless reprints, four films, and a horribly off-target Broadway musical?

After visions of pig’s blood haunted me day and night, I decided to compose a list of why the story and its offspring are so essential to the horror genre. Now that I’ve paid appropriate homage, maybe polyester suits and Saint Sebastian crosses will let me rest.

So here are ten ways that Carrie altered the landscape of horror. And after nearly half a century, its influence is still going strong.

1. Made horror literature viable again

Although so-called intellectuals often want to discount horror altogether, the genre has been a true stalwart of literature, quietly terrifying readers during their waking hours as well as through countless evenings of nightmares. Without the likes of Poe, Stoker, and Shelley, books in general would be sorely lacking that je ne sais quoi we all know and love.

But the greats weren’t all Gothics and Romantics. The mid-twentieth century saw the rise of several more indelible voices in horror, including Ray Bradbury, Richard Matheson, Rod Serling, and Shirley Jackson. But by the time the ‘Me Decade’ commenced, things had started to settle down again, and horror, though alive and well in cinema, looked like it could fall to the wayside in fiction. After all, publishers are always searching for an excuse to declare horror as lacking in commercial appeal.

Then along came an English teacher from Maine to shake everything up. Carrie became his first foray into a genre with which he’s now practically synonymous. Today, he’s still one of the most recognizable names in popular fiction, and that’s not even specifying horror. Love him or hate him, he’s changed our world forever.

Carrie Book Cover

2. Proved book-to-film adaptations can be great

As a matter of near daily obsession since basically birth, I make a habit of studying horror movies. Everything from the acting to the effects and the cinematography to the costume design manage to wedge themselves in my brain for future reference.

About five years ago, I came to what now seems like a self-evident conclusion: Carrie is as close to a perfect horror movie that may ever exist. This isn’t to say it’s my absolute favorite (that would probably still be Texas Chain Saw) or that it’s entirely faultless (cringe as John Travolta tries to deliver a believable line reading!).  But in terms of a shot-by-shot exercise in celluloid excellence, I believe–with gore-loving conviction I might add–that it even outdoes that other King adaptation that everyone loves so much. And no, I’m not talking about Christine.

Director Brian de Palma spent months storyboarding the film, and the prep work proved time well spent. The composition of every scene is so precise yet never overdone. And that continuous crane shot in the gymnasium! In the days before steady-cam, the prom scene that starts on the ballots and ends with the coronation ranks as one of the greatest celluloid accomplishments. Despite dozens of previous viewings, every time I watch it, it still gives me chills.

Carrie Sissy Spacek

3. Transformed adolescent milestones into horror tropes

Way before Twilight tried to pretend it could use horror to channel angst, Carrie had already demonstrated how well the genre dovetails with the daily dread that accompanies adolescence.

And it’s not just the “plug it up” menstruation scene, which did for communal showers what Psycho did for private ones. Carrie immortalized prom, first love, and mean girls. For those of us who didn’t live through the seventies, it’s easy to forget that Halloween didn’t show up until two years later. Carrie was one of the first films to look to high school for guidance in crafting the greatest horror a generation had ever seen. That’s how scary it is to be a teenager.

Not everyone was in on the joke however. Art director Jack Fisk commented that after the film’s release, every prom seemed to repurpose Carrie’s starry décor. You have to wonder if the student committees choosing themes ever considered the irony of paying tribute to the world’s worst formal. Probably not. They were too busy voting for the night’s King and Queen.

Carrie Sissy Spacek William Katt Prom

4. Made a female character a strong protagonist

As a major issue still plaguing horror films to this day, not every genre movie gives women their due. Far too often, female characters make dubious choices and play no particular role in their own salvation.

But Carrie served as the exception long before it was trendy to do so. Neither the book nor the movie whitewashes the perils of being a girl, whether it’s bodily changes turning against you or those people who ought to be your friends. But perhaps most impressive of all, Carrie is not just for girls. Though the lead might be female, the painful experiences are ones that anybody who’s ever felt like an outsider can appreciate. And that universality, more than anything else, is what makes Carrie a timeless work of art.

Carrie Sissy Spacek Happy

5. Made a female character a strong antagonist

The opening shot of Carrie White failing to wallop a volleyball over the net doesn’t exactly give the audience the impression of surreptitious strength. And rightfully so. Part of the fun in Carrie is getting to see her transformation from weakling to monster. That’s the same appeal that governs, say, The Toxic Avenger or even Cronenberg’s version of The Fly. As any Intro to Psychology course has taught us, Jung’s Other archetype is a perpetual outcast and any attempt to integrate almost never ends well.

But as much as the metamorphosis has become something of a trope, very few films can do it well. The fact that Carrie as a book and then a film managed to make over a primary character from a mousy lead into a formidable opponent speaks volumes to the quality of the material. Carrie’s been called a reverse Cinderella story. If only every Disney movie could turn out so powerful.

Carrie Prom Fire 1976

6. Dealt with bullying before it was a hot button issue

Though most of us rarely admit it, at least about ourselves, horror is often the stomping ground for society’s coolest misfits. Consequently, many of you reading this probably remember being bullied in high school. I sure do. Being the little Goth girl who loved slashers in a Podunk town that cared only about its lousy sport teams was like endeavoring every day to take a trip to Mordor…without Gandalf. Or the eagles. Or even a damn elf. But I digress (and mix fantasy and horror metaphors apparently).

The point is, before bullying became something people actively condemned, everyone used to give silent consent and tell you to suck it up if you were being picked on. But even when the adults failed you, you still had Carrie, the original poison pen letter to bullies everywhere. Its greatest lesson? Don’t screw with the weird kids. You don’t know what kinds of inexplicable powers are lurking just beneath that odd exterior.

Carrie Nancy Allen PJ Soles 1976

7. Gave us every single Stephen King book & film that’s come since

I once read a yarn about how King was walking out the door to sell his typewriter when the acceptance letter for Carrie arrived. While that might not be the truest story ever told–at the very least, the typewriter belonged to his wife, not him–the sentiment is still an important one for horror. If the little book about the ultimate misfit hadn’t sold, King might have packed it all in and returned to his quiet life as a Maine schoolteacher. As a writer who hopes one day to prove even half as prolific as King, I sincerely doubt he would have given up quite so easily, but it’s hard to know for sure.

Therefore, without Carrie, we might never have visited the Overlook Hotel in The Shining, learned to be careful where you bury your pets (and children) in Pet Sematary, or worried that undead kids might be floating outside our window a la Salem’s Lot. In short, Stephen King has opened up a world unlike any other author’s, and it all started with Carrie. Quite an accomplishment, considering that at just under two-hundred pages, it’s one of his shortest works.

Stephen King Books

8. Got horror nominated for major Oscars

No horror fan can pretend–with a straight face, anyhow–that the Academy is some reliable marker of quality in Hollywood. It’s a better indicator of pretension and cronyism, and in the dead of every winter, earns the title of smarmiest, snobbiest night in television.

But all that said, plenty of people do still care about the Oscars. So when a relatively low-budget horror movie based on the book of a debut author earns nods for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, it means something. And yes, in the annals of horror, 1973’s The Exorcist received more nominations–ten versus Carrie’s two–but that film benefited from a far larger budget and several actors who were already established in Hollywood. Plus, the supporting cast didn’t feature as much as a cameo from John Travolta, the ultimate handicap for any movie.

On Oscar night, Carrie didn’t take home any statuettes, but the esteem directed at Sissy Spacek’s Carrie White and Piper Laurie’s Margaret White somehow seems more incredible in retrospect. Short of Black Swan, which I bet some readers don’t even consider genre, horror has been notably absent outside of Makeup and Effects nominations for the better part of two decades. Still, as Carrie proved, sometimes horror is so good, even a begrudging Academy has no choice but to acknowledge it.

Carrie Piper Laurie Sissy Spacek

9. Showed us (more than once) that remakes are no good

Try to remember back before the recent onslaught of remakes. I know, I know. It’s hard to do since we’ve been forced to endure a full decade of endless regurgitated horror. But in 2002, just before remakes became the norm, Carrie turned into an early casualty, and the book has now been retooled twice since the 1976 classic. And don’t even get me started on that self-serious musical from the late eighties. Or that sequel that I always (try to) forget about. Two remakes are more than enough.

With a tacked-on happy ending that destroys the spirit of the novel, the made-for-TV disaster collapsed into a thorough mess, at best contrived and at worst outright blasphemous. Granted, the perpetually underrated Angela Bettis does manage to salvage the 2002 version from being a total loss. Unfortunately, last year’s curiously sanitized version could not claim the same.

Although it initially jockeyed to craft a closer adaptation of the source material, Kimberly Peirce’s finished product felt like everything that makes nouveau horror so bad: lacking in gore and more importantly, lacking in soul. And as much as I love Chloë Moretz, no actress whose part-time job includes the title “Aeropostale model” should ever play Carrie. Period. (Oh come on, this article required at least one menstrual joke.)

Carrie Remake 2013

10. Reminds us why we’re so happy high school’s over

Anytime someone reminisces about high school being the best time of a person’s life, I want to pat them on the shoulder and offer condolences. There’s nothing wrong with a little nostalgia, just as long as you don’t lose sight of reality. And watch one scene or read one chapter of Carrie, and you’ll receive a stark reminder as to why being a teenager sucks. Questionable fashion choices? Check. Irredeemably mean student body? Check. Constant humiliation through both internal self-torture and external bullying? Every awful part of pre-adult life is on tap here, and it’s displayed in a true kaleidoscope of misery.

So the next time somebody you know waxes philosophically about the wonders of youth, stream the 1976 version of Carrie for immediate required viewing. Or hand over your Kindle download of the book. Either way, you’ll be offering the greatest gift of all: restoration of reality via horror.

Carrie 1976

So Happy Birthday, Carrie White. You might not have made it out of high school, but you sure helped us through it.



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      1. david April 23, 2014 at 1:47 am

        Chloe Moretz was awesome in Let Me In. I think she’s more than capable enough to deliver a good unique portrayal of Carrie. To me it was the script and direction, what’s an actress to do. Maybe the cast were all blinded by it.

      2. Tiago April 23, 2014 at 5:29 pm

        Fantastic article. It was the first book I ve read in english. I think it is a piece about conformity, and group behaviour. In many levels. And also puberty. And the movie is just awesome. I didnt watch the remake, semmns pointless to me.

      3. Jordan April 24, 2014 at 1:27 pm

        Having read the original screenplay by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, I can safely say that the original script didn’t follow the same structure as the 1976 film. Yes, there were a few homages here and there, but it was a whole new take on the story. Before the film was delayed in January 2013, there was a lot of positive feedback from those who attended the first test screenings in December 2012. A number of people confirmed that the original cut was longer and a lot different than the theatrical cut. I remember watching a video on YouTube where two guys reviewed the film (without giving away spoilers) based on what they saw at the test screenings. They confirmed that the film was a lot different to Brian De Palma’s film and was more closer to the Stephen King novel. I personally believe that the studios interfered with the editing of the film. The theatrical cut wasn’t what Kimberly Peirce wanted to release in theatres. It’s like they re-cut the film and gave us a remake of Brian De Palma’s film. I knew it wasn’t Kimberly’s voice in the movie — it was the studios.

        A friend of mine, who is a filmmaker, gave their two cents as to what might have happened…

        The original cut was all ready to go in March, then the studios looked at the release date and thought they could make more money on “Carrie” during the Halloween season. So they demanded re-shoots to make it more Horror. Re-edits to make it a generic Horror film. Push it out at Halloween to make a quick buck. It would explain why the writer of the 1976 film was credited after the 2013 film was delayed — they re-shot a lot of scenes from the 1976 screenplay. Obviously a Halloween release would sound appropriate for the film, but it would have involved a lot of re-editing to fit the running time. The downside to the re-shoots and re-edits is that a lot of scenes would have to be dropped or trimmed to fit the required running time by the studios. The shorter the film, the more viewing sessions the film has.

        Based on fan speculation, test audience feedback, and certain confirmed details concerning the film — the deleted and/or extended scenes include:

        -The original opening was a flashback of Carrie as a little girl spying through a fence on a female neighbor who is sunbathing. The young woman notices Carrie and starts to make conversation with her. Carrie tells her that she can see her “dirty pillows” and the neighbor explains to her that it is normal for women to develop breasts when they get older. That’s when Margaret White appears and snatches up Carrie, screaming and yelling at the neighbor. She calls the young lady a whore, telling her to stay away from her child, and Carrie gets upset and begins to cry. Suddenly, it starts hailing. Pellets of ice come down on top of Carrie’s home while Margaret runs into the house trying to console her daughter. The neighbor just stares in disbelief as the hail rains down on the White residence, and only the White residence.

        -The White Commission [The film had integrated several courtroom scenes with witnesses giving testimonies of their experiences with Carrie White leading to the prom incident, essentially structuring the film as a series of flashbacks and recollections. The neighbor from the alternate opening scene is shown at first, now an adult woman, recounting her experience. There is also a scene featuring a TK Specialist discussing telekinesis and saying something to the effect of Carrie being one of many people who may be born with this genetic anomaly. It’s been said that the White Commission scenes revealed too many prom survivors which the filmmaker’s felt spoiled the climax]

        -There was ‘found footage’ that played a role in the film. That’s why you see Freddy ‘Beak’ Holt carrying his camera around and filming everything.

        -There was more scenes detailing more in depth character development.

        -There was more scenes involving school life, social media and bullying.

        -“Wipe that smile off your face.” – Chris to Carrie at the pool.

        -Chris and Tina kiss [Extended]

        -Scenes involving Facebook, the e-mail sent from Chris to Donna Kellogg. “So I’m out of prom and my [censored] father says he won’t give them what they deserve.”

        -Billy’s wild ride [The “blow— scene” – similar to the 1976 version]

        -An interaction between Chris and Carrie outside the dress shop.

        -The confrontation between Sue and the mean girls

        -Carrie levitates Margaret [Extended]

        -Drive to the pig farm [Extended]

        -After Tommy leaves the table to get some drinks, Carrie and Miss Desjardin have a friendly and meaningful conversation.

        -Carrie and Tommy kiss.

        -Billy kisses Chris.

        -Margaret claws her way out of the closet and goes over to the sink where she retrieves a butcher knife and cuts herself.

        -Sue tries to call Tommy from outside the school to warn him that something bad is about to happen. He rejects the call.

        -The prom scene as a whole, which was said to be longer and more violent than the theatrical version.

        -Tina on fire [Extended]

        -A scene or shot which reveals George’s and Erika’s fate.

        -There were some really creepy stuff that was unfortunately cut during post-production, like some “dancing” dead students. My source is not completely certain about this detail or its placement within the film. But it was either in a deleted scene where Carrie snaps the limbs of prom-goers or during the electrocution scene which was supposed to be more graphic and longer. In the novel, it was described as a “crazy puppet dance”.

        -The scene of Carrie levitating outside of the burning school was actually re-shot. In the original version of that scene, Carrie was standing in the centre of the lawn, waiting for the remaining students to come out of the burning school before telekinetically picking them off one by one.

        -After Carrie leaves the school, she begins to destroy part of the town by causing explosions, bringing down power lines as she follows Billy and Chris. You can see a few seconds of it from the aerial view. If you look behind Carrie, you can see that several cars are in flames.

        -When Sue is outside the school with Miss Desjardin, she sees Tommy’s body being carried out on a stretcher. Miss Desjardin tells Sue that she’s sorry and Sue walks away with determination to find Carrie.

        -Margaret’s original death scene – possibly similar to the book version which depicts a heart attack caused by Carrie’s power.

        -The multiple endings

        1) The first ending is very similar to the ending of the 1976 film but without the final twist: Sue Snell actually gets killed when Carrie pulls her into the ground.

        2) The second ending is an exact replica of the original film where Snell gets pulled into the ground by Carrie but wakes up in her bed to find it’s just a dream.

        3) The third ending is after Carrie saves Sue by pushing her out of the house, which collapses from the falling stones. There’s a bird’s eye view of the wreckage of what used to be Carrie’s home before we get a quick CGI zoom through a pit of debris, to a close-up of a now bloodied Carrie snapping her eyes open.

        4) The fourth ending is of Sue making a final speech to the court where she says the line heard in the teaser trailer about Carrie being just a girl, not a monster. This is spoken over scenes of Sue and her family visiting the cemetery. Sue goes to Carrie’s grave, which shows the headstone tagged up and vandalized. She leaves her flowers and just walks away. Nothing scary, just a very somber closing shot of the headstone.

        5) The fifth ending is after Carrie’s house is destroyed by the falling stones, the movie flashes forward to several months later. We see Sue in the hospital surrounded by doctors and nurses, ready to give birth. They’re trying to calm her down but Sue begins to struggle, saying she feels something is wrong. Suddenly, a very bloody hand (covered in afterbirth) erupts from between Sue’s legs, reaching up and gripping her arm. She screams in terror and we see that she is having a nightmare, being held down by her parents while the camera pans over to a wall where we are shown a large crucifix hanging in her room.

        6) The sixth ending is described as a “morning after voice over” by Sue Snell as we see the town coping with what happened.

        7) The seventh ending shows the town the morning after Carrie’s attack filled with news crews, reporters, and cops talking about the whole thing. What’s bizarre about this scene is that Carrie’s destruction of the city is being described as “a conspiracy.” Apparently the town is “trying to cover up what really happened.”

        • gwendolynkiste April 26, 2014 at 4:04 pm

          Thank you for all this information! That clears up a lot about the remake. I already knew bits and pieces about the behind-the-scenes, but your comment really makes me hope that the studio will eventually release an alternate version. I still can’t imagine it will be as amazing as the 1976 version, but I do think Kimberly Peirce is a great filmmaker who could have/should have/apparently did produce a better version of Carrie than what was released.

      4. Michael Kruger April 25, 2014 at 7:36 pm

        Will have to rewatch

      5. Rob Firsching April 26, 2014 at 5:30 am

        Are we just pretending that “The Exorcist” and “Jaws” were not viable horror films, were not based on novels, and were not nominated for a total of 14 Oscars in the 3 years immediately prior to “Carrie”? I mean, I love “Carrie” as much as the next guy, but some of the points on this list seem to forget that there was a lot of horror going on at the time.

        • gwendolynkiste April 26, 2014 at 3:52 pm

          The 1970s did have some of the best horror films of all time. But the reason I wrote an article on Carrie in particular is that, for one, it launched Stephen King’s career. And no disrespect to Peter Benchley and William Peter Blatty, but King has left a more indelible impact on horror, if nothing else from his sheer number of books and subsequent film adaptations.

          Also, I do mention The Exorcist in the article as receiving ten Oscar nominations, and I would certainly consider Jaws a great horror movie as well (I’m working on a Best of the 1970s list right now for this site, and Jaws and The Exorcist are both on there). However, Carrie sticks out to me because it was actually a very low-budget movie with no big names attached (other than Piper Laurie who hadn’t acted since 1961’s The Hustler). The Exorcist was produced for $12 million, Jaws for $9 million, but Carrie was made for less than $2 million. Yet the cinematography, the acting, the art design, and the direction can hold their own with much more expensive films.

          But you’re absolutely right. There were so many great horror movies at that time, dozens of which deserve their own lists. And anytime I extoll the virtues of one movie doesn’t mean I don’t love and respect another similar film. That just means I’m saving that movie for another list.

      6. Jordan June 13, 2014 at 12:05 am

        Hi Gwen, I just thought I should let you know there’s an online petition for a Director’s Cut to be released. The petition has gained over 6,000+ signatures (I think?), so I’m curious to see how that will turn out.